Indian Journal of Palliative Care
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 35--42

Palliative care quiz for Nurses-Indonesian Version (PCQN-I): A cross-cultural adaptation, validity, and reliability study

1 Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Population Health; Center for Tropical Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
2 Department of Medical Surgical Nursing; The Sleman Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
3 Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
4 Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

Correspondence Address:
Chi-Yin Kao
1 University Road, Department of Nursing, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/IJPC.IJPC_76_20

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Aim: The study is aimed to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the palliative care quiz for nurses in an Indonesian context to evaluate its psychometric properties. Methods: A two-phase design was used in this study, including cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric testing. The PCQN-I was tested on a convenience sample of health-care providers recruited from 20 primary health-care (PHC) centers in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, from July to October 2017. Results: The cross-cultural adaptation ultimately resulted in a total of 20 items from the PCQN-I. An expert committee revised the words in Item 4 from “adjuvant therapies” to “adjuvant therapies/additional therapies,” in Item 5 from “bowel regimen” to “gastrointestinal therapies,” and Item 16 from “Demerol” to “Pethidine” based on the Indonesian context. The experts retained Item 5 “It is crucial for family members to remain at the bedside until death occurs,” although none of the participants (n = 40) involved in the pilot testing could answer it correctly, and Item 19 “The loss of a distant or contentious relationship is easier to resolve than the loss of one that is close or intimate” although few participants responded correctly. A total of 150 health-care providers consisting of 100 nurses and 50 physicians were involved in the psychometric testing. The scale-level content validity index/Ave of the PCQN-I was 97 and 93 in terms of its relevancy and clarity, respectively. The reliability was calculated as the Kuder–Richardson formula 20 score was 0.71. Conclusions: The PCQN-I is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing palliative care knowledge among PHC providers. Further research is warranted to examine its reliability in different clinical settings.


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