Indian Journal of Palliative Care
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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 398--402

Self-Expanding Metallic Stents (SEMS) in inoperable esophageal cancer: A prospective analysis of morbidity and survival outcomes

1 Department of Gastroenterology, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India
2 Department of Medicine, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College, Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India
3 Department of Community Medicine, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College, Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India
4 Department of Physiology, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sujeet Raina
C-15, Type-V Quarters, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College Campus, Tanda, Kangra - 176 001, Himachal Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/IJPC.IJPC_185_18

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Background: Palliative treatment for inoperable esophageal cancers by self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) overcomes disease-related symptoms, preserves the quality of life, and prolongs survival. The aim of this study was to determine dysphagia relief, complications, and patient survival after SEMS in patients with inoperable esophageal cancer. Methods: This is a hospital-based open cohort study conducted over 9 years between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2017, from the Sub-Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent. The last patient was recruited on November 16, 2017 and the minimum of follow-up was either death or survival till December 31, 2017. All the patients attending gastroenterology clinic or admitted in medical wards and fulfilling the definition of inoperable esophageal cancer, subsequently treated with SEMS were included. Data were prospectively gathered on demography, dysphagia scores, morbidity, mortality, and survival outcomes. Follow-ups were done during hospital visits or through a telephonic conversation with the patient and/or caregiver. Results: Of 239 patients, 147 (61.5%) were male and 92 (38.5%) were female. Most of the patients (60.7%) are in the age group of 51–70 years. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was diagnosed in 205 (85.7%) and adenocarcinoma (ADC) in 34 (14.2%). Lower one-third was the most common site of tumor and observed in 125 (52.3%) patients. ADC was diagnosed equally in males and females and the mean age of presentation with ADC was equal to SCC. All the patients had dysphagia score 4, which improved to score 1 after SEMS insertion. Females had better survival than that of males. The difference was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: SEMS effectively reduced dysphagia in inoperable esophageal cancer. Better survival rates were observed in females than males.


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